Підводні технології. Промислова та цивільна інженерія http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/ <p>“Підводні технології” (ПТ) - міжнародний науково-виробничий журнал, в якому публікуються сучасні дослідження вчених і фахівців в галузях промислової та цивільної інженерії. Журнал є рецензованим виданням з відкритим доступом в мережі Інтернет, що забезпечує: доступність до інформації та швидке її розповсюдження; вільне використання матеріалів із збереженням авторських прав; експертну оцінку публікацій фахівцями відповідних галузей; просування результатів наукових досліджень у виробництво. До складу редакторської колегії залучені вітчизняні та закордонні науковці й фахівці, зокрема з Білорусії, Германії, Італії, Канади, Непалу, Німеччини, Польщі, Угорщини, Швеції та ін.</p> Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture uk-UA Підводні технології. Промислова та цивільна інженерія 2415-8550 <p>Автор(и) та Редакція згодні на те, що Редакція також матиме право:</p><ul><li>здійснювати необхідне оформлення Твору/Статті за результатами його редакційної обробки;</li><li>визначати самостійно кількість видань, друк додаткових копій і тираж Твору/Статті, кількість копій окремих видань і додаткових тиражів;</li><li>опублікування Твору/Статті в інших виданнях, пов’язаних з діяльністю Редакції</li></ul>В журналі діє ліцензія <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><span class="cc-license-identifier">CC BY 4.0</span></a><br /><div> </div><div> </div><div> </div><div> </div> The use of geographical and informational systems the provision state and public interests in the implementation of urban development http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210693 <p>The article summarizes that the main problem of forming a modern urban development documentation system consists in direct tendencies of functional-spatial and planning regulation of urban layouts, in the development of the territory with the help of special tools, territorial indicators, and urban planning regulations. Whereas the updated documents should meet new conditions of spatial development of the territory – regulation of socio-economic processes and the architectural-planning organization of urban planning systems with the help of urban development, including legal regulation of relations between subjects of urban development.</p><p>The purpose of the article is to analyse the condition and prospects of using geographical and informational systems in urban planning. A number of scientific methods have been used to achieve this purpose, in particular: analysis, synthesis, generalization, summaries, etc.</p><p>Urban development informational content expansion is a trend that characterizes each stage of its development. Under modern socio-economic conditions, the tendency has become a consistency, which, in combination with the managing (regulating) aspect of the modern content of urban development and the improvement of legal relations of subjects of urban development determines the essence of the current stage of urban development.</p><p>At present, informational systems are more actively used in Ukrainian urban development rather than in urban development data banks. It has been summarized that due to informational systems, specialists have the opportunity to see, assess, take into account modern processes of the territory development and create the basis for its sustainable spatial development. Informational technologies have become an integral part of urban development and have contributed a new organizing and optimizing start, having increased its overall efficiency. A special place in urban development is given to geographical and informational systems (GIS). Their main functions are to create an urban development informational environment, to store territorial cartographical (spatial) information.</p><p>It has been generalizes that the use of GIS in urban development involves their specific complex structural application. The information structure of any GIS urban profile is formed on the basis of informational and technological blocks, thematic and informational layers of graphic (cartographical) information, banks and databases.</p> Yevhen Klushnychenko Iryna Savchuk Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 66 73 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1901 University as the Core of the Functional Planning Organization of an Innovative City http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210829 <p>The rapid spread of IT technologies at the current stage of human new economic development, the formation of smart and innovative cities demonstrates extraordinary growth of the science and education significance. As a result, universities, research centres and high-tech industries are more and more often beginning to be the core of the contemporary city spatial organization.</p><p>The article deals with the stages of universities historical development as society scientific thought and technological knowledge concentration – <em>ancient</em> (formation and development of philosophical thought), <em>medieval</em> (creation of universities and formation of scientific branches – the humanities or trivium development, and the exact sciences or quadrivium), <em>modern </em>(spread of exact sciences as a basis for technical and technological innovations and industrial production development).</p><p>Above mentioned universities’ spatial development models are being characterized as an integral part of the city functional-planning organization, the predominant function of which is the educational or scientific-technological function. They are - <em>monocentric</em> (the university is the dominant integral planning element in the structure of the city); <em>polycentric</em> (formation of a group of universities as independent planning entities on the ground of a single historically formed university) and <em>dispersed</em> (spatial development of a mono- or polycentric model with the creation of separately located structural elements of the university, mainly in the peripheral city zone).</p><p>The actual quantitative indicators of the most typical foreign and domestic university cities, in particular, the share of teachers and students number in the total University City population are giv en below. The functions of the university at the contemporary stage of the development of society are described – they are educational, research, educative, commercial and communicative ones.</p><p>The article presents the tendencies in the formation of the modern city functional planning organization. The examples of innovative cities spatial organization are – the city of Masdar (UAE) and UNIT-City (Ukraine). Recommendations on the eventual transformation of existing domestic cities according to the innovative University City model are given below.</p> Alla Pleshkanovska Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 74 83 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1902 The problem of determining traffic and pedestrians delay in the city road-street network unregulated intersection area http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210830 <p>The motorization level increase in the city of Kyiv, taking place since the late 1990s up to 2008, caused the increase of the traffic flows intensity in the city and overwork of the city road-street network (RSN). The city streets and roads intersections became the places of traffic and pedestrian flows network concentration. In the City of Kyiv over a half of all intersections of streets and roads are unregulated. Therefore, in the aforementioned conditions (continued motorization level increase, limited number of parking spaces, public transport lanes allocation), as well as increasing demand for individual vehicles (Segway, gyro scooters, bicycles), the problem of unregulated crossings operation assessment is relevant. Proper traffic organization, taking into account all traffic participants, is the factor of the whole system efficient operation.</p><p>While analyzing the regulatory framework of Ukraine for the design and operation of urban transport infrastructure, there are several problem areas: the lack of sufficient description of the requirements for the unregulated crossings design; the absence of a comprehensive assessment of the intersection including all traffic participants (cars, pedestrians, cyclists and public transportation); the absence of regulatory transportation capacity.</p><p>The article proposes to introduce the common structure of indicators of unregulated intersection work efficiency of traffic network. Such indicators have been used for more than 50 years by American, European and other countries’ designers to solve urgent urban construction and transport problems. This direction uses the level of service (LOS) Concept that aims to maximize the comfort of the transportation infrastructure elements – roadway, sidewalk, pedestrian crossing<br /> etc. The main indicators in this concept are the traffic and pedestrians delay control in the unregulated intersection area; this article deals with the method of its determination. Thus the method of full-scale traffic and pedestrians delay measurements is provided. Multimodal intersection level of service (MMLOS) is determined using the automotive and pedestrian components.</p> Mykola Osyetrin Oleksiy Dvorko Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 84 95 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1903 Basic provisions for the analytical calculation of vertical cylindrical containers http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210691 <p>The basic provisions for the analytical calculation of vertical cylindrical capacities are provided in this article. The submitted data is the result of a global study accomplished by the authors in recent years. The simplified procedure of mathematical calculations, which is used in the formulation of these dependencies, can characterize the outlined aspects in line with the engineering method and be recommended for practical application. In the given research the problem of the influence of profiling of the wall of the vessel on the radial movements of the case under the action of axially asymmetric and asymmetric loading is analyzed. The basic calculation formulas are given for determination of internal forces (ring normal stresses, running bending moments and running transverse forces) and displacements of the no-gauge storage capacity under load, which is described by the exponential law characteristic of the pressure of the loose material. A brief description of the influence of vertical ribs on the rigidity characteristics of silo tanks, as well as the expressions for estimating longitudinal forces in the ribs at a certain altitude level is given. Particular attention is given to the calculation of cylindrical capacities under conditions of asymmetrical radial loading.</p><p>In this case, the problem is considered for two variants of the simplified procedure, in accordance with the instantaneous theory and a more precise analytical solution in applying the equilibrium equations of the moment theory, which allows taking into account the effect of internal bending moments in the sections. In both cases, the simplification of the computational procedure is accomplished by decomposing an asymmetric load into a finite trigonometric series and conducting a calculation for each component separately. The internal forces arising in the edges of the conical roofs from the action of the most probable loads own weight, weight of technological equipment, wind pressure and snow load are also calculated. In this case, only the simplest construction of the roof was considered, characteristic of small diameter containers, which consist exclusively of the main radial edges. The article provides the formulas for finding the internal forces in this element and the maximum compressive force and maximum bending moment in a dangerous section.</p> Oleksandr Lapenko Natalia Makhinko Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 50 57 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1801 The production of the splash phenomenon, as a way of dissipating the energy of a gravitational wave http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210692 <p>Investigations are aimed at revealing the conditions for the generation of a Splash wave phenomenon by a submerged breakwater, as having a particularly effective form of wave energy dissipation. On the basis of a wide range of well-known theoretical studies of wave transformation over bottom inhomogeneities, the expediency of laboratory experiments on physical models is shown as a method that allows taking into account the peculiarities of the influence of targeted turbolization of the water flow. Numerous experiments on physical models have shown the possibility of the occurrence of such a phenomenon over a system of bottom inhomogeneities and the rationality of further scientific search. However, the effect is achieved when certain parameters of many independent variables (significant and represented in a wide range of factors) are combined. This circumstance makes a positive solution of the problem rare in nature.</p><p>In view of the multifactority of the hydrodynamic process under investigation, an analysis of the theoretical premises was carried out, which allowed us to concentrate on a new variant of the solution of the problem posed – a single breakwater with a special crest design. The version of a "box" type breakwater was taken.as a basis But part of the wave energy quenched in it is directed to quenching another part of the energy of the wave flow passing over the top of the breakwater. The task was to find the location, shape and size of the opening in the top. Two versions were investigated: in the form of a perforation and in the form of a slit located along the breakwater. The last version showed its superiority and this result allowed to proceed to the solution of the next problem, the search for the most effective of the of the breakwater cavity cross-section.shape. The obvious direction of the search was the effect of a curvilinear wave-breaking wall of the embankment. Instead of the vertical face under the "visor" (that is, under the horizontal plane of the top surface) previously accepted in the studies, two schemes for calculating the surface curves, differing from each other in radius and length, are studied. The size of the slit in the "visor" varied. The conditions and prospects for the development of Recommendations for the design of the submerged breakwater of this type are described.</p><p>The urgency of the solution of the problem lies in the broad perspective of the use of submerged breakwaters in recreational zones.</p> Yevhen Horbatenko Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 58 65 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1802 A formal model of the human psyche life-supporting functions dialectic logic control http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210687 A lot of research in the field of artificial intelligence cannot be completed, or carried out at all, due to the lack of at the moment a correct theory of the human brain functioning associated with its intellectual activity, at least at a conceptual level. So far, there are no comprehensive proposals by researchers on what principles should be based on models of elementary and structured meanings processed by the brain in the course of human life, not to mention formal languages and their grammars, or, especially, formal theories designed for these purposes. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap in scientific knowledge about the human brain. Academician P.K. Anokhin in 1984 proposed the concept of a model for organizing and regulating a behavioral act, in which there is a place for all basic processes and conditions. It was called the functional system model. With such a model, it becomes possible in the same vein, using axiomatic statements, to create a logical-dialectical model of the functioning process at the physiological level of any of the higher mental functions. The dialectical logic of controlling any human body functional systems follows from the conceptual knowledge of the vital functions of these functional systems, obtained exclusively by natural experimenting. Therefore, the conceptual knowledge of the vital functions of each studied functional system of a person should precede the description of the logic essence of its control. The human psyche is one <br /> <br /> of the most important functional systems of the human body. The article presents the fundamental concepts of the vital functions of this system, which allow revealing the essence of the dialectical logic of life-supporting functions control and a formal model of the dialectic logic of the human psyche functional system control. Victoria Kondratenko Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 13 21 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1201 Underwater radio device http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210690 <p>Creation of a radio communication device for underwater objects for the exchange of voice messages and for the transmission of digital data. The relevance of this problem is determined by the fact that the currently existing samples of equipment for underwater radio communications are excessively powerful, dimensional and with low bandwidth. An analysis of developments in this area showed that underwater radio communications can be organized on longitudinal electromagnetic waves or by using only the magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave.</p><p>The principle of operation of the device is based on the use of only the magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave. It is known that an electromagnetic wave consists of two components: electrical and magnetic. Water is an electrically conductive medium where the skin effect acts, according to which the deeper, the weaker the signal. But this is for the electrical component. Water has weak magnetic properties, so water is not a hindrance to the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave.</p><p>Such a device, depending on its power, can be used both for individual communication of swimmers, and for the organization of radio communication between beacons and even for communication with submarines. It is possible to isolate the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave according to two principles: to strengthen the magnetic component or to weaken the electrical component.</p><p>The separation of the magnetic component of the electromagnetic wave is carried out in the so-called magnetic antennas, which can be built in the form of coils with a ferrite core, can be of a frame type of a certain size or in the form of a coil in a screen made of non-magnetic metal. When upgrading conventional radio communication devices to the underwater version of their use, only the antenna-feeder path is subject to change, while other components of the communication channel remain unchanged. Application of such principles of radio communication organization will allow building submarine communication systems for an almost unlimited distance.</p> Yurii Khlaponin Oleksandr Selyukov Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 39 49 10.32347/uwt2020.09.1501 Щелевое резание грунта со свободным боковым оттоком http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210688 <p><strong></strong>В условиях резания грунта в глубине массива при ограничении оттока грунта по боковым сторонам широкого ножа эпюра давлений на его переднюю грань имеет приближенно треугольную форму. При малых углах резания деформирование и выдавливание грунта происходит, в основном, в своды щели в вертикальном направлении. Ранее автором были получены аналитические зависимости давления гранта на верхнюю кромку прямого плоского ножа. При образовании щели широким острым ножом, установленным под некоторым углом в плане относительно направления его движения (в случае отсутствия бокового выпора), определены зависимости сил резания грунта от величины его пористости и зоны деформации.</p><p>Целью исследования является установление силовых зависимостей щелевого резания грунта широким косоугольным ножом <em>при возможности свободного выхода грунта в боковые технологические прорези</em>. В рассматриваемой работе, как и в модели, предполагается, что процесс резания грунта – квазистатический. Осуществляется он косоугольным широким плоским ножом с достаточно малым углом резания, как правило, не превышающем 20°. Считаем, что весь объем грунта расходуется на его перемещение вдоль поверхности ножа без образования ядра уплотнения или пластической зоны на лобовой грани.</p><p>Отличием настоящей модели является то, что грунт, двигаясь по ножу, может свободно перемещаться в боковые прорези (как минимум равные его высоте), образованные технологической оснасткой предварительно пробуренных скважин, вдоль которых движется нож. То есть, боковые стороны ножа свободны для пропуска избыточного грунта, перемещающегося вдоль его поверхности.</p> Mykhailo Sukach Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 22 29 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1301 Control weld geometric parameters when wet underwater welding http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210689 <p>The aquatic environment has a significant impact on the efficiency of heat input to the base metal, significantly reducing the efficiency of the arc. As a result, in wet underwater welding, the penetration of the base metal is reduced compared to welding in the air with the same mode parameters. The purpose of the research was to determine the effectiveness of the influence of the parameters of the process of underwater wet welding with rutile-type flux-cored wire on the geometric parameters of the weld metal – its width and penetration depth of the base metal. In this case, the shape coefficient of the weld was determined - the ratio of width to penetration depth (W/P). It was found that the welding speed, wire feed speed and the amplitude of the welding torch oscillations have a significant impact on the ratio of the width to the penetration depth of the welds. The W/P ratio of welds decreases significantly with increasing welding speed without oscillation of the welding torch. So, when welding with transverse oscillations of the welding torch with an increase in the wire feed speed, it decreased from 7.14 to 3.85. And it linearly increased with increasing amplitude of the torch oscillations. It was found that the oscillation velocity, elongation of the flux-cored wire, and arc voltage have an insignificant effect on the W/P ratio.</p> Han Yanfei Guo Ning Feng Jicai Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 30 38 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1401 Evaluating parameters of econometric models with linear limitations and a rank deficient observation matrix http://uwtech.knuba.edu.ua/article/view/210686 <p>There considered the approach of the linear econometric dependences parameters estimating for the case of combining a set of special conditions arising in the simulation process. These conditions address the most important problems met in practice when implementing a series of classes of mathematical models, for the construction of which the matrix of explanatory variables can be used. In most cases the vectors that make up the matrix have a close correlation relationship; this leads to the need of performing calculations using a<strong> </strong>rank deficient<strong> </strong>matrix. There are also take place violations of the Gauss-Markov theorem condition. The list of above mentioned special conditions is augmented by the additional model parameters constraints. Cobb-Douglas's production function and the Solow model are known economic problems of this type. In this research the need to impose additional constraints on the model parameters is extended to a wider range of tasks. In general, the economic formulation of the problem with the specified features is presented.</p><p>Known ways to solve these tasks are discussed. The authors’ approach proposed takes into account the whole spectrum of these features. This approach is based on the application of pseudorandom matrices and the use of singular matrix decomposition. The use of proposed mathematical tools makes it possible to improve the quality of estimating model parameters while using real economic processes data. The analytical definition is found for the parameter evaluating vector of a linear econometric model with all the above mentioned features. Analysis of the used definition provides determination of the conditions that the matrix<br /> must satisfy; this describes additional model parameters constraints. The term was also obtained to estimate the variance of a linear econometric model parameters vector.</p><p>The results obtained can be used in machine learning systems in the implementation of problems of econometric dependencies or discriminant models.</p> Ganna Gryshchenko Oleksandr Kutovyi Oleg Shutovskyi Авторське право (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-07-01 2020-07-01 10 3 12 10.32347/uwt2020.10.1101