University as the Core of the Functional Planning Organization of an Innovative City
The rapid spread of IT technologies at the current stage of human new economic development, the formation of smart and innovative cities demonstrates extraordinary growth of the science and education significance. As a result, universities, research centres and high-tech industries are more and more often beginning to be the core of the contemporary city spatial organization.
The article deals with the stages of universities historical development as society scientific thought and technological knowledge concentration – ancient (formation and development of philosophical thought), medieval (creation of universities and formation of scientific branches – the humanities or trivium development, and the exact sciences or quadrivium), modern (spread of exact sciences as a basis for technical and technological innovations and industrial production development).
Above mentioned universities’ spatial development models are being characterized as an integral part of the city functional-planning organization, the predominant function of which is the educational or scientific-technological function. They are - monocentric (the university is the dominant integral planning element in the structure of the city); polycentric (formation of a group of universities as independent planning entities on the ground of a single historically formed university) and dispersed (spatial development of a mono- or polycentric model with the creation of separately located structural elements of the university, mainly in the peripheral city zone).
The actual quantitative indicators of the most typical foreign and domestic university cities, in particular, the share of teachers and students number in the total University City population are giv en below. The functions of the university at the contemporary stage of the development of society are described – they are educational, research, educative, commercial and communicative ones.
The article presents the tendencies in the formation of the modern city functional planning organization. The examples of innovative cities spatial organization are – the city of Masdar (UAE) and UNIT-City (Ukraine). Recommendations on the eventual transformation of existing domestic cities according to the innovative University City model are given below.
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